Frequently Asked Interview Questions in SAP MDG

Category: SAP MDG Posted:Mar 02, 2017 By: admin

1. What is an ERP ?

ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning. A comprehensive software solution integrates various business processes and functions into a single unified system. Imagine a scenario where different departments within a company, such as finance, human resources, inventory management, and sales, maintain separate software systems to manage their operations. This often leads to inefficiencies, data inconsistencies, and challenges in communication. ERP addresses these issues by providing a centralized platform that enables real-time data sharing and streamlines processes.

For instance, when a customer places an order, ERP can automatically update inventory levels, generate invoices, and notify the sales team, ensuring smooth operations and accurate information across the organization.


2. What are the different SAP products?

SAP offers a diverse range of products tailored to meet specific business needs. These include:

SAP S/4HANA: A next-gen enterprise resource planning (ERP) suite that provides real-time insights and simplifies business processes.

SAP SuccessFactors: A comprehensive Human Capital Management (HCM) solution for managing HR functions in the cloud, from recruitment to talent development.

SAP Ariba: A procurement and supply chain management solution that enhances collaboration between buyers and suppliers.

SAP Concur: An expense management platform that streamlines travel and expense processes for improved financial control.

SAP Customer Experience: A suite of solutions that empowers businesses to deliver exceptional customer experiences and build lasting relationships.

SAP BusinessObjects: A business intelligence and analytics platform for data-driven decision-making.

SAP Analytics Cloud: An all-in-one cloud platform for business intelligence, planning, and predictive analytics.

SAP Leonardo: A digital innovation system that integrates advanced technologies like IoT, machine learning, and blockchain into business processes.

SAP offers a diverse portfolio of products to address various aspects of modern business operations. For instance, consider a manufacturing company that wants to optimize its HR processes, streamline procurement, and gain real-time insights into its operations. It could leverage SAP SuccessFactors to manage its workforce efficiently, SAP Ariba to enhance procurement processes, and SAP S/4HANA to gain actionable insights for strategic decision-making. Each product serves a specific purpose, allowing businesses to tailor their technology stack to their unique requirements.


3. What is NetWeaver?

NetWeaver is an integrated technology platform that serves as the foundation for various products within the mySAP suite. It enables these products to operate seamlessly on a unified instance called SAP Web Application Server (SAP WEBAs).

NetWeaver acts as a robust backbone that supports the cohesive functioning of diverse mySAP suite applications, ensuring compatibility and efficient utilization of resources.


4. List the Different Modules in SAP.

FI (Financial Accounting): FI module manages financial transactions, accounting, and financial reporting. It handles functions like general ledger accounting, accounts payable, and accounts receivable.

CO (Controlling): The CO module focuses on cost controlling and analysis. It helps manage costs, budgeting, and profitability analysis, providing insights for effective decision-making.

EC (Enterprise Controlling): EC extends the capabilities of CO by offering advanced analytical tools for performance measurement, helping organizations evaluate their financial and operational performance.

TR (Treasury): TR module manages treasury and risk management functions such as cash management, liquidity planning, risk analysis, and managing financial instruments.

IM (Investment Management): IM module supports the planning, execution, and monitoring of capital investments, aiding in managing projects, budgets, and resources.

HR (Human Resource): HR module handles personnel management, recruitment, payroll, time management, and employee development, ensuring effective human resource management.

SD (Sales and Distribution): SD module manages sales processes, order processing, pricing, and customer interactions, contributing to efficient sales and distribution management.

MM (Materials Management): MM module oversees procurement, inventory management, and material movement, ensuring the availability of materials for production and sales.

PM (Plant Maintenance): PM module deals with maintenance planning, equipment management, and work order processing, ensuring optimal functioning of assets and machinery.

PP (Production Planning): PP module supports production processes, including demand planning, production scheduling, and capacity utilization, aiding in efficient manufacturing.

QM (Quality Management): QM module focuses on quality control, inspection, and assurance across production processes, ensuring products meet defined quality standards.

BW (Business Warehousing): BW module facilitates data warehousing, reporting, and analytics, enabling organizations to gather, store, and analyze business data for informed decision-making.


5. What is Meta data, Master data, and Transaction data?

Meta Data: Meta Data is like a blueprint for your data. Imagine you’re building a house (your data) – Meta Data is the detailed plan that outlines the structure, layout, and relationships of all the rooms (data elements) in the house. It doesn’t contain the actual information (like furniture or decorations), but it guides how your data should be organized and understood.

Master Data: Master Data is the essential information that serves as a reference for your business operations. Think of it as the foundation of your business – it includes key details about customers, employees, products, and more. For instance, if you have a product catalog, Master Data holds vital information like product names, descriptions, and pricing. Whenever you need consistent and accurate reference points, you turn to your Master Data.

Transaction Data: Transaction Data is the dynamic, ever-changing information that captures day-to-day activities. Picture a cash register in a store – every time a sale is made, it generates a transaction that includes details like the products sold, quantities, and prices. These transactions keep a record of every interaction, allowing you to track activities and make informed decisions.


6. Can we run a business warehouse without SAP R/3 implementation?

Yes, it’s possible to run SAP Business Warehouse (BW) without implementing SAP R/3. In this scenario, you can directly populate BW data sources (such as ODS tables and InfoCubes) using data from external sources. This can be achieved by transferring the required data structures to inbound data files or utilizing third-party tools to connect and load flat files and other external data sources. This approach enables you to leverage the analytical capabilities of BW without the need for a full SAP R/3 implementation, making it a flexible option for organizations with specific data integration requirements.


7. What are variables?

Variables are placeholders used in queries within SAP MDG. They act as parameters that are defined in the query, but their values are not assigned until the query is executed. This flexibility allows you to customize and fine-tune your queries based on specific criteria or conditions.

Imagine you are working with a large dataset of products in your organization’s master data. You want to create a query that fetches all products within a certain price range, but you don’t want to hard-code the price values each time you run the query. Instead, you can define variables for the minimum and maximum price.

When you execute the query, the system prompts you to input the values for these variables. This way, you can easily modify the price range without altering the query itself. Variables enhance the reusability and adaptability of queries, ensuring that you can obtain relevant data without repeatedly modifying the query definition.


8. What are the different types of variables?

  • Characteristics Variable: Characteristics variables are placeholders that allow you to dynamically substitute values during data processing. For example, you can use them to populate attributes of a material master record based on certain conditions.
  • Hierarchies: Hierarchies in SAP MDG enable you to organize and display data in a structured manner. They are particularly useful when dealing with complex data relationships, such as categorizing products into different product lines and subcategories.
  • Hierarchy Nodes: Hierarchy nodes represent individual elements within a hierarchy. In a product hierarchy, for instance, nodes could represent specific products or product groups, allowing you to categorize and manage data more efficiently.
  • Text: Text variables enable you to incorporate descriptive information or annotations into your data records. These can enhance the understanding of your master data, such as providing additional context to product descriptions.
  • Formulas: Formulas allow you to perform calculations or derive values based on existing data. For instance, you can create a formula to calculate the net price of a product based on its base price and applicable discounts.
  • Processing Types: Processing types define how variables should be processed during data maintenance. They offer flexibility in handling different scenarios, such as determining whether a variable value should be overwritten, merged, or ignored.
  • Replacement Path: Replacement paths define how variables should be replaced during data replication across systems. This is useful when harmonizing data between different environments, ensuring consistent and accurate information.
  • User Entry/Default Type: User entry and default types determine how variable values are initially populated or edited. You can set default values for certain attributes to streamline data entry, while allowing users to modify them as needed.


9. Mention some of the setbacks of SAP.

  • It is expensive: Implementing SAP MDG involves significant costs, including software licensing, hardware, implementation services, and ongoing maintenance. These expenses can strain a company’s budget, especially for smaller organizations.
  • Demands highly trained staff: SAP MDG requires specialized knowledge and expertise to configure, implement, and maintain effectively. Without a skilled and dedicated team, there’s a risk of inefficiencies, errors, and underutilization of the system’s capabilities.
  • Lengthy implementation time: The process of implementing SAP MDG can be time-consuming. Configuration, data mapping, testing, and customization can take several months or even longer, delaying the realization of benefits and impacting time-to-value.
  • Interfaces are a little bit complex: Integrating SAP MDG with existing systems can be intricate. Developing and managing interfaces to connect MDG with other applications or databases might require additional effort and technical resources.
  • Does not determine where master data resides: SAP MDG doesn’t inherently dictate where master data should physically reside. This can lead to challenges in data management, consistency, and accessibility, as there might be multiple sources of truth for the same data.


10. What is the difference between OLAP and Data Mining?

OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) is like a well-organized filing cabinet for your data. It’s a reporting tool that helps you slice and dice your sales data based on predefined categories like time, location, and product categories. Think of it as a way to quickly pull out specific sales figures for a particular period, region, or product line.

Data Mining is like having a detective on your sales team. It’s a process that goes beyond organized categories and digs deeper into your sales data. Using data mining, you can uncover hidden insights, such as discovering that certain products tend to sell better in specific weather conditions or that customer buying patterns change during certain seasons. It helps you identify unusual relationships and patterns that might not be immediately apparent.

OLAP is great for generating pre-defined reports and performing multidimensional analysis. In our scenario, if you want to know the total sales for a specific product category in a particular region for a given time frame, OLAP makes it easy by organizing data hierarchically and allowing you to drill down or roll up as needed.

Data Mining, on the other hand, is your tool for discovering the unexpected. It’s like having a magnifying glass to scrutinize your sales data, helping you find correlations and patterns that might not have been explicitly defined. For example, you might uncover that ice cream sales increase when the temperature rises, even if you didn’t explicitly set out to find this connection.


11. What are the three stages of data mining?

Initial Exploration: Imagine you’ve just arrived in a new city as a tourist. In this stage, you’re wandering around, observing the surroundings, and getting a general sense of the place. Similarly, in data mining, this stage involves exploring the dataset to understand its structure, identifying potential patterns, and gaining insights into the data. It’s like the first step where you’re acquainting yourself with what’s there.

Model Building: Think of this stage as designing a map of the city based on your exploration. Here, you’re creating a model that represents the patterns and relationships you’ve discovered in the data. Continuing the analogy, you’re marking key locations, streets, and landmarks on your map. In data mining, this involves selecting appropriate algorithms, training models, and fine-tuning parameters to accurately capture the insights found during exploration.

Deployment: Now that you have your city map ready, it’s time to share it with others who might find it useful. In data mining, deployment means putting the insights and models you’ve developed into practical use. Just as you’d share your city map with fellow tourists, you integrate your findings into business processes, applications, or decision-making systems. This stage ensures that the valuable insights you’ve gained are utilized to drive informed actions.


12. What are the different layers in the R/3 system?

Presentation Layer: The Presentation Layer is the user interface of the R/3 system. It’s part of the system that users directly interact with. This layer provides a visual representation of data, allowing users to input commands, retrieve information, and interact with the system’s functionalities. It ensures a user-friendly experience and enables communication between users and the application.

Application Layer: The Application Layer, also known as the Logic Layer, contains the core business logic and processing capabilities of the R/3 system. It processes user requests, executes transactions, and manages data. This layer is responsible for interpreting user actions and translating them into meaningful operations within the system. It ensures the execution of various business processes, such as order processing, inventory management, and financial calculations.

Database Layer: The Database Layer stores and manages the actual data used by the R/3 system. It is where all the business data, configuration settings, and transaction records are stored. This layer ensures data integrity, availability, and security. The Application Layer interacts with the Database Layer to retrieve and store data as required by the business processes. It is the foundation of the R/3 system, serving as a repository for all essential information.


13. What is the process to create a table in the data dictionary?

To create a table in the data dictionary, follow these steps:

Creating Domains: Domains define data types, field lengths, and value ranges. They ensure consistent data integrity. For instance, you can create a domain named “CustomerName” with a data type of CHAR and a length of 50 characters.

Creating Data Elements: Data elements specify properties and types for table fields. They provide semantic meaning to fields. For example, you can create a data element named “CustNameElem” with the domain “CustomerName.”

Creating Tables (SE11): Finally, use the transaction code SE11 to create the actual table. Link the data elements to table fields. Define keys, relationships, and other attributes. This step brings everything together, enabling you to store and manage data effectively.


14. What is AWB?

AWB stands for Administrator Workbench. It serves as a comprehensive tool for overseeing, managing, and maintaining various processes associated with data staging and processing within the business information warehousing environment.

The Administrator Workbench (AWB) is a pivotal component in SAP Master Data Governance (MDG) that offers a centralized platform for administrators to effectively monitor and control the flow of data. This tool plays a crucial role in ensuring data accuracy, consistency, and compliance by enabling efficient management of processes related to data staging and processing. With AWB, administrators can streamline workflows, troubleshoot issues, and ensure smooth data operations within the business information warehousing ecosystem.


15. Explain what is Bex?

Bex stands for Business Explorer. It’s a tool that empowers end users to efficiently access, analyze, and visualize reports. It enables users to execute queries and also store query workbooks in their designated roles within the Bex browser. Bex encompasses key components such as Bex Analyzer for data analysis, Bex Map for geographical visualization, and Bex Web for web-based reporting.

Bex plays a crucial role in SAP MDG by providing users with a user-friendly interface to interact with data. It allows them to navigate through reports, perform in-depth analyses, and gain insights. With Bex, users can create queries and save them in a structured manner, making it easier to access and share relevant information. The different components of Bex cater to various needs, such as data exploration, geographical representation, and web-based reporting, enhancing the overall usability and versatility of the tool.


16. What is the importance of ODS in BIW?

The Operational Data Store (ODS) plays a crucial role in BIW by serving as a repository for debugged and consolidated transaction data on a document level. It aggregates data from various info sources, creating a unified dataset that can be easily analyzed using BEx queries or Infoset queries. Unlike multi-dimensional storage in InfoCubes, ODS stores data in transparent, flat database tables. ODS data can be efficiently updated using delta updates, either into InfoCubes or other ODS objects, within the same system or even across different systems. This streamlined storage and integration process enhances data accuracy and accessibility for meaningful insights and reporting in your business.

Imagine you are managing a business’s data integration and reporting processes. You’re responsible for maintaining accurate and consolidated transaction data for analysis. In this context, let’s explore the importance of the Operational Data Store (ODS) within the Business Information Warehouse (BIW).


17. What is the difference between Domain and Data Element?

Data Element: An intermediary between domain and table type.

A Data Element acts as a bridge between the technical definition of a field (Domain) and its usage in a database table or structure. It adds a semantic layer, providing a name, description, and other metadata to the underlying technical specifications.

Domain: Defines field attributes like length, type, and value range.

A Domain establishes the technical characteristics of a field, including its data type, length, and permissible value range. It ensures data consistency and integrity by enforcing specific rules and restrictions on how data can be stored in that field.

Scenario: Imagine you’re developing an SAP MDG solution for a company’s employee database.

Data Element: Let’s say you have a field named “Employee Type” in your database table. The Data Element attached to this field provides additional information like its user-friendly label (“Employee Type”), its description (“Indicates the type of employee”), and any conversion routines needed for data processing.

Domain: Now, within the “Employee Type” field, the Domain defines technical details such as the data type (char, numeric, etc.), the maximum length of the field, and a predefined list of valid employee types (e.g., “Full-time,” “Part-time,” “Contractor”). The Domain ensures that only valid employee types are entered and stored in this field, maintaining data quality.


18. What are SET parameters and GET parameters?

SET parameters involve placing values into the global memory area, while GET parameters retrieve these values. In the context of an online program, you “Set” values from screen fields, and later “Get” these values back into the screen fields.

SET parameters facilitate the storage of data within a shared memory space, making it accessible for various processes. In the case of an online program within SAP MDG, you might “Set” user inputs from screen fields into these parameters. Later, when needed, you can “Get” these values from the parameter ID memory area and populate the respective screen fields. This mechanism ensures seamless data transfer and utilization throughout the application’s lifecycle.


19. What is ALE, IDOC, EDI, and RFC? 

ALE (Application Link Enabling): ALE is a framework that facilitates seamless data exchange between different SAP systems.

ALE, which stands for Application Link Enabling, is a technology that allows different SAP systems to communicate and share data with each other. It provides a framework for distributing data and processes across various systems in a controlled and efficient manner. ALE enables real-time and batch communication, making it possible for businesses to integrate processes and data between their SAP systems.

IDoc (Intermediate Document): IDoc is a standardized format for exchanging data between different systems in SAP.

An IDoc, or Intermediate Document, is a structured format used for exchanging business data between different systems, both within and outside the SAP ecosystem. IDocs play a crucial role in data communication and integration. They contain information about business transactions, such as sales orders or purchase orders, and can be sent between SAP systems or between SAP and non-SAP systems. IDocs ensure consistency and reliability in data exchange.

EDI (Electronic Data Interchange): EDI is a technology for electronically exchanging business documents between trading partners.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is a method for exchanging business documents, such as orders, invoices, and shipping notices, electronically between different organizations. EDI eliminates the need for manual data entry, reduces errors, and accelerates the exchange of information. It follows standardized formats and protocols to ensure seamless communication between trading partners, enabling efficient and automated business processes.

RFC (Remote Function Call): RFC is a mechanism for calling functions in a remote system from another system.

Remote Function Call (RFC) is a protocol used in SAP systems to enable communication and interaction between different systems. It allows a function or method to be executed in a remote system as if it were a local function call. RFC is commonly used for integrating and synchronizing processes across different SAP systems or between SAP and non-SAP systems. It ensures real-time data exchange and collaborative processing between distributed systems.


20. What is BDC stand for? How many methods of BDC are there?

Direct Input Method: This method involves directly inputting data into SAP screens using predefined structures. It’s suitable for simple, repetitive tasks and is relatively straightforward. However, it may not handle all error scenarios gracefully.

Batch Input Session Method: This method involves creating a batch input session, where the data is first recorded in a session file. The system then processes the session, simulating user interactions. It offers better error handling and can manage more complex scenarios.

Call Transaction Method: In this method, transaction codes are called to process data. It’s more flexible than the other methods and provides better control over error handling. However, it requires a deep understanding of the underlying transaction logic.


21. What is meant by “baseline data” in SAP AR and AP?

The baseline date is a crucial reference point for payment terms within SAP AR and AP processes. It signifies the starting date from which the payment terms become effective. Typically, this date aligns with the document date stated on the invoice. However, in certain cases, it can also correspond to the date of entry or the posting date recorded in the ledger. In essence, the baseline date establishes the foundation for determining payment timelines and obligations in SAP Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable workflows.


22. What do you mean by one-time vendors?

One-time vendors refer to a practice commonly used in specific industries where creating new master records for each vendor trading partner is impractical. Instead, a one-time vendor approach involves using a dummy vendor code during invoice entry. This allows the necessary vendor information, typically stored in the vendor master record, to be directly inputted on the invoice itself.

In scenarios where multiple transactions occur with vendors who may not have an ongoing, long-term relationship with the organization, creating and maintaining separate vendor master records for each transaction can be cumbersome and inefficient. This is particularly true for industries where there are frequent, short-term interactions with various vendors.

With the one-time vendor concept, a temporary or generic vendor code is utilized during the invoice entry process. This code serves as an identifier for the transaction, and instead of relying on a complete vendor master record, the pertinent information about the vendor is directly entered on the invoice document. This streamlined approach simplifies the process, reduces administrative overhead, and expedites transaction handling.


23. What are the standard stages of the SAP Payment Run?

Entering Parameters: This initial stage involves entering essential details such as company codes, vendor accounts, and payment methods. These parameters help the system understand the context and criteria for the payment run.

Proposal Scheduling: Once parameters are set, the system generates a proposed list of invoices or bills that need to be paid. It identifies due payments and suggests which vendors should be paid based on predefined criteria.

Payment Booking: In this stage, the actual payments are processed and booked into the financial ledger. The system initiates the transfer of funds from your company’s accounts to the vendors’ accounts.

Printing of Payment Forms: After payments are booked, the system generates and prints payment forms or documents, such as checks or remittance advice, which serve as records of the payment transactions.

Imagine you are the financial manager of a retail company. You’re preparing for the monthly payment run to ensure all outstanding vendor invoices are settled. You start by entering the necessary parameters, including the company codes, vendor accounts, and the preferred payment method (such as electronic funds transfer). The system then generates a proposal that highlights which vendors and invoices are due for payment based on predefined terms. Once you review and confirm the proposal, the system proceeds to book the actual payments, effectively transferring the funds from your company’s bank account to the vendors’ accounts. Finally, the payment forms, like checks or electronic payment receipts, are printed for your records and communication with vendors. This comprehensive process ensures your company’s financial obligations are met promptly and accurately.


24. What is the difference between the “residual payment” and “partial payment” methods of allocating cash in accounts receivable?

Partial Payment: Imagine an invoice A456 worth $100. The customer makes a payment of $70.

In a partial payment scenario, the received amount ($70) is applied to the invoice, reducing its outstanding balance. The remaining balance on the invoice becomes $30, indicating that a portion of the invoice has been settled, but some amount still remains to be paid.

Residual Payment: Consider the same invoice A456 worth $100. The customer makes a payment of $100.

In a residual payment approach, the full invoice amount ($100) is applied and cleared. However, instead of leaving the invoice partially paid, a new invoice line item is generated for the remaining balance ($30). This additional line item helps maintain accurate records of the original invoice and the residual amount separately.


25. What are internal tables, check tables, value tables, and transparent tables?

Internal Tables: Internal tables are temporary data containers within the program’s runtime.

In our employee data management scenario, internal tables would hold temporary data like employee records during the execution of your MDG program. They exist only while the program is running and are used to store and manipulate data efficiently.

Check Tables: Check tables ensure field-level data validation.

With employee data, a check table could be used to validate the entered job roles against predefined roles, preventing incorrect or inconsistent entries. This ensures data accuracy and integrity.

Value Tables: Value tables validate data at the domain level.

In our context, a value table could be employed to ensure that entered salary ranges for employees fall within predefined limits. This maintains data consistency and ensures adherence to defined rules.

Transparent Tables: Transparent tables have identical structures in both the dictionary and the database.

When storing employee data, a transparent table would hold the same structure in both SAP MDG’s data dictionary and the underlying database. This ensures seamless data synchronization, allowing data to be stored and retrieved consistently.


26. Define application, presentation, and database servers in SAP R/3.

Application Layer:

Application Server: This is where the application programs of the SAP R/3 system run. It handles the business logic, processing user requests, and managing data. Application servers communicate with each other, presentation components, and the database server.

Message Server: The message server facilitates communication among application servers, presentation components, and the database server. It ensures efficient data exchange and load balancing between servers.

Presentation Layer:

Presentation Components: These are the user interfaces where users interact with the SAP system. They provide the graphical interface for users to access and interact with the application functionality. Presentation components connect to application servers through the message server.

Database Server:

Database Server: The database server stores all the data used by the SAP R/3 system. It acts as a centralized repository for business data. Application servers retrieve and update data from the database server as needed to perform various business operations.

Imagine a scenario where a user in a manufacturing company wants to create a new production order for a specific product. The user interacts with the presentation component, which provides the user interface. The presentation component sends the request to an application server. The application server processes the request, validates the data, and performs necessary calculations based on the business logic.

Next, the application server communicates with the message server to ensure that the appropriate resources are available for processing the request. The message server also helps in load balancing, directing the request to an available application server if needed.

The application server then interacts with the database server to retrieve product details, inventory data, and other relevant information. It updates the database with the new production order and relevant data.

Throughout this process, the message server facilitates communication between the different servers, ensuring smooth data flow and efficient resource utilization. This architecture enhances the performance, scalability, and maintainability of the SAP R/3 system.


27. Explain what is a company in SAP?

In SAP, a company serves as the top-level organizational entity used for generating financial statements such as profit and loss statements and balance sheets. It represents a distinct business entity within the organization. Let’s consider a scenario to explain:

Scenario: Imagine a multinational corporation named “GlobalTech Inc.” that operates in multiple countries. Each country has its own set of legal and financial requirements. To effectively manage its financial reporting, GlobalTech Inc. sets up different companies within SAP.

Explanation: Each company within SAP corresponds to a separate legal entity or geographical division of GlobalTech Inc. For instance, “GlobalTech USA” could be a company established in the United States, while “GlobalTech Europe” represents the European operations. Each of these companies can have its own financial transactions, business processes, and reporting requirements.

Moreover, within each company, there can be multiple company codes. A company code represents the smallest unit for which financial accounting is performed independently. For example, “GlobalTech USA” might have separate company codes for its different business units or divisions within the United States.

It’s important to note that all company codes within a particular company must adhere to the same Chart of Accounts (COA) and fiscal year. This ensures consistency and facilitates accurate financial reporting across the organization. By organizing their operations into distinct companies and company codes, GlobalTech Inc. can efficiently manage their financial data, comply with local regulations, and generate relevant financial statements as needed.


28. What is the difference between SAP BASIS and SAP ABAP?

SAP ABAP: SAP ABAP is the programming language for customizing, generating forms, and creating reports within SAP.

Imagine you’re building a house (SAP system). ABAP is the toolbox filled with tools that allow you to shape the house’s interior – you can customize rooms, design unique furniture (custom functionalities), and even create beautiful artwork (reports) to showcase. It’s all about crafting tailored experiences and functionalities within the SAP environment.

SAP BASIS: SAP BASIS is the administration module for managing code changes, upgrades, databases, networks, and overall system administration in SAP.

Think of SAP BASIS as the foundation of your house (SAP system). It ensures the stability and functionality of the entire structure. Just like a solid foundation supports the building’s integrity, BASIS handles the behind-the-scenes tasks like laying the groundwork for code changes, overseeing system upgrades, maintaining the databases, and setting up the network connections. It ensures that your SAP environment operates smoothly and securely.


29. List out the different types of source system in SAP.

SAP R/3 Source System: SAP R/3 source system refers to the core ERP system that acts as a data source for SAP Master Data Governance (MDG). It provides the foundational data required for master data management processes.

SAP BW (Business Warehouse): SAP BW serves as a source system, supplying trusted and structured data from data warehousing environments. It enables data integration for effective reporting and analytics within the SAP MDG context.

Flat Files: Flat files, such as CSV or Excel files, are external data sources that can be integrated with SAP MDG. These files contain relevant data which can be loaded into the MDG system to initiate or update master data.

External Systems: External systems encompass a wide range of applications outside the SAP ecosystem. These systems can serve as sources for master data, allowing seamless integration with SAP MDG to maintain data consistency across diverse platforms.


30. What is Extractor?

An Extractor is a mechanism used in SAP MDG to retrieve data from the SAP source system. It populates the extract structure of a data source with information obtained from datasets within the SAP source system.

Imagine you have an SAP MDG implementation where you need to gather master data from your SAP source system, such as customer information. The Extractor acts as a bridge, pulling this data from various datasets within the SAP source system and filling the designated data source’s extract structure. This structured approach ensures a seamless flow of data from the source system into SAP MDG, enabling accurate and up-to-date master data management.


31. What is extended star schema?

The extended star schema is a data modeling approach that extends the traditional star schema used in data warehousing. In the star schema, we have fact tables and dimension tables. The extended star schema adds a layer of master data related tables that are separate from the fact and dimension tables. These master data tables hold references to the characteristics found in the dimension tables.

Imagine you’re building a data warehouse for a retail company. The traditional star schema would involve a fact table containing sales transactions and dimension tables like products, time, and customers. The extended star schema adds another layer where you have separate master data tables for customers, products, and other key entities. These master data tables hold detailed information about customers and products, and they reference the respective dimensions in the star schema.

For instance, in the extended star schema, the master data table for customers might contain attributes like customer name, address, and contact details. This table would reference the customer dimension in the star schema, which provides high-level information about customers. This separation of master data into its own tables enhances data management and allows for more efficient updates and maintenance.


32. What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?

Enhanced Analytical Capabilities: BW leverages data warehousing and OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) principles, making it better suited for in-depth analysis and complex reporting tasks. This allows for more comprehensive and insightful business insights.

Optimized Data Storage: BW is designed to efficiently store large volumes of historical and aggregated data, ensuring optimal performance for reporting and analysis. R/3, on the other hand, is primarily focused on transaction processing, which might lead to suboptimal performance for extensive reporting.

Simplified Reporting: While R/3 can support reporting, BW is specifically tailored for reporting and analysis. The tools and structures within BW streamline the process of creating, customizing, and distributing reports, making it more user-friendly and efficient for reporting purposes.

Centralized Data: BW consolidates data from various sources into a single repository, simplifying data access and ensuring data consistency across the organization. This centralized approach supports better data governance and accuracy in reporting.

Imagine a retail company tracking sales data. While both BW and R/3 can provide sales reports, BW’s data warehousing and OLAP capabilities allow it to handle complex queries, historical analysis, and diverse data sources more efficiently. This ensures that business analysts can easily access comprehensive sales insights, including trends, customer behaviors, and regional performance, without overwhelming the transactional R/3 system. In this scenario, choosing BW for reporting optimizes analytical capabilities and improves the overall efficiency of the reporting process.


33. Mention the major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3.

Enhanced Analytical Power: Business Warehouse (BW) is optimized for in-depth analysis, utilizing data warehousing and OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) principles. This provides a robust foundation for complex business insights. On the other hand, R/3, designed primarily for transaction processing, may offer analysis but lacks the specialized architecture for intricate reporting.

Dedicated Data Storage: BW’s data warehousing architecture allows for efficient storage, organization, and retrieval of historical and aggregated data. This architecture caters specifically to reporting needs, enabling quicker and more streamlined access to relevant information. R/3, while capable of generating reports, may involve more effort to extract and process the same level of analytical data.

Simplified Analysis: BW’s predefined data models and structures facilitate easier and standardized data analysis. These structures are tailored for reporting, slicing, and dicing data across various dimensions, simplifying complex business queries. In contrast, R/3 might require more manual effort to achieve similar analytical outcomes.

Performance Optimization: BW’s optimized performance architecture ensures efficient handling of large datasets for reporting purposes. This architecture includes features like aggregated tables and star schemas, providing faster query responses. R/3, designed primarily for transaction processing, may not provide the same level of performance optimization for analytical tasks.


34. Mention the two types of services that are used to deal with communication.

Message Service: The Message Service is utilized within the SAP MDG environment to facilitate the exchange of brief internal messages. Application servers leverage this service to communicate and share essential information efficiently. It enables seamless and rapid communication among various components of the system, enhancing collaboration and data sharing.

Gateway Service: The Gateway Service serves as a crucial bridge between the SAP R/3 system and external applications. This service employs the CPI-C (Common Programming Interface for Communications) protocol to enable smooth communication and interaction between the SAP environment and external software. Through the Gateway Service, data can be securely transmitted and received, fostering integration and interoperability between diverse systems.


35. Mention the reason codes used in Account Receivable.

In the context of Account Receivable processes, “Reason Codes” are utilized to categorize and explain instances of under or overpayments that occur during the allocation of incoming customer payments. These codes provide a structured way to identify and document the reasons behind these discrepancies, allowing for clear tracking and resolution.

However, it’s important to distinguish between “Reason Codes” and “void reason codes.” While “Reason Codes” are used for payment allocation discrepancies, “void reason codes” serve a different purpose. “Void reason codes” are employed when canceling or voiding outgoing cheques, ensuring accurate record-keeping and audit trails for such transactions.


36. What are pooled tables?

Pooled tables in SAP MDG are utilized to store control data, and multiple pooled tables can be grouped together to create a table pool.

Imagine you have various types of control data in your SAP MDG system, such as different categories of products or regions. Instead of creating separate individual tables for each type, which could lead to inefficiency and redundancy, you can utilize pooled tables. These pooled tables act as containers for specific types of data.

For instance, let’s say you’re managing products in your SAP MDG system. You might have different categories of products like electronics, clothing, and accessories. Instead of creating separate tables for each category, you can create pooled tables for electronics, clothing, and accessories. These individual pooled tables can then be grouped together into a table pool, which is a physical table on the database. This pool efficiently stores the records from all the related pooled tables.


37. What is an update type with reference to a match code ID?

Update Type in SAP MDG: An update type in the context of a match code ID refers to a predefined strategy that dictates how and when updates are performed on match-code data. Imagine a scenario where one of the foundational tables linked to a match code ID undergoes changes – this could be due to data modifications, additions, or deletions. To ensure accuracy and relevance, the match-code data must be synchronized with these changes.

Consider a practical situation where an organization’s product inventory experiences frequent updates, such as new products being added or existing ones being modified. In this context, the match code ID (which could be associated with products) is the mechanism that helps identify and link relevant data. However, these match codes need to be constantly updated to reflect the latest changes in the product inventory.

Here’s where the update type comes into play. It defines how frequently and in what manner these updates are to be performed. For instance, the update type could specify that match-code updates should be triggered every week, consolidating all the changes that have occurred during that period. It might also outline the exact method to be used for recalculating and rebuilding match codes – this could involve intricate algorithms to ensure accurate linkage.

In summary, the update type within the context of a match code ID serves as a rulebook for keeping match-code data synchronized with the dynamic changes in underlying base tables. It ensures that the identification and linkage mechanisms remain up-to-date and reliable, contributing to the overall accuracy and efficiency of data management in SAP Master Data Governance (MDG).


38. What is meant by “Business Content” in SAP?

“Business Content” in SAP refers to pre-configured and pre-defined models of information stored within the SAP data warehouse. These models are ready to use and can be directly employed or customized to fit specific needs across various industries. Imagine it as a set of templates that streamline processes and data management, saving time and effort in implementation and ensuring best practices are readily available.


39. Mention the common transport errors.

Return code 4: This error occurs when the transport is imported with warnings, which could be related to missing generated programs, columns, or rows. It’s important to address these warnings to ensure the successful functioning of the transported objects.

Return code 8: When encountering this error, it indicates that the transport has been imported with syntax errors, program generation issues, or problems with dictionary activation. These errors need to be rectified to maintain the integrity of the transported content.

Return code 12: This return code signifies that the import has been canceled due to the absence of an object or the object not being active in the system. To resolve this, the missing or inactive object should be addressed and made available for successful import.

Return code 18: When encountering this error, it indicates that the import was canceled due to various reasons, such as the system being down during import, user expiration during import, or insufficient roles or authorization. Ensuring system availability, valid user access, and proper authorization is crucial to avoid this error.

24 X 7 Customer Support X

  • us flag 99999999 (Toll Free)
  • india flag +91 9999999